1. In heterosexual couples, infertility affects about 1 in 6 couples, with male infertility contributing to about half of all cases. Infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, problems with the reproductive organs, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. In some cases, the cause of infertility is unexplained.

2. When it comes to fertility, age is an important factor. As women age, the quantity and quality of their eggs decrease, making it more difficult to conceive. Men's sperm count and quality also decline as they age, which can affect fertility. It takes two to make a baby, so if you're having trouble getting pregnant, it may be time to consider a fertility assessment for her and a semen analysis for him.

3. LGBTQ+ individuals and couples have several family-building options, including donor insemination, IUI, IVF, adoption, surrogacy, and more. These options allow LGBTQ+ individuals and couples to build families without the need for a heterosexual partner, with donor conception and surrogacy involving using a third party to help conceive a child.

2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a common fertility treatment that involves placing sperm directly into the uterus during ovulation. This can help increase the chances of fertilization by bypassing any potential barriers to sperm reaching the egg, such as cervical mucus. IUI can be used with either a partner's sperm or donor sperm.


3. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a fertility treatment that involves retrieving eggs from the ovaries, fertilizing them with sperm in a laboratory, and then transferring the resulting embryos into the uterus. IVF is often used when other fertility treatments have not been successful or when there are more complex fertility issues. IVF can also be used with donor sperm or eggs.

4. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of IVF that involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg to achieve fertilization. ICSI can be used when there are male infertility issues such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality. ICSI can also be used with donor sperm.

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5. Donor sperm can be used in IUI, IVF, or ICSI to help heterosexual and same-sex couples conceive. Donor sperm can be obtained from a sperm bank like California Cryobank, which extensively screens donors. Donor sperm can also be used in cases of severe male factor infertility, or where the male partner has a genetic disorder that they do not want to pass on to their offspring.